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Cancer is a global health problem affecting all countries. Lung cancer is the most complicated cancer due to the involvement of various genes and intracellular processes in its carcinogenesis. It is the third most common cancer found in Indonesia after breast cancer and cervical cancer, and its impact on the patient, family, and national health burden could not be underestimated. Significant advancements have been achieved in the diagnostic procedures and treatment modalities of lung cancer. However, solving the lung cancer problem in Indonesia require a holistic solution, and good collaboration between specialists as a multidisciplinary team is crucial. The new paradigm of lung cancer views this disease as a chronic disease and offer more optimistic target of treatment to control the disease and to have good quality of life. Objective measurement of premature death can be used as a parameter to assess the achievement of lung cancer program nationally. Strict control of risk factors and early screening for high-risk groups are essential for lowering premature deaths. For the future, stem cell therapy is a promising modality in the treatment of lung cancer. Studies are currently planned for the discovery of lung cancer stem cell and the therapy that target it.
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